In our first blog post in this series, we introduced community emission inventories. In the previous article, we examined categories and scopes of the Global Protocol for Community-scale Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventories (GPC) in greater detail. In this blog post, we will look at the differences between a BASIC, BASIC+ and a territorial inventory.
We recommend that you read our introductory article first to get a basic understanding of GPC inventories.
Reporting emissions under the GPC
As per our previous article, emissions have to be classified by scope and (sub)sector, but there are two different ways you report these emissions.
- Scopes framework – territorial accounting
- City-induced framework
These two frameworks sum and report carbon emissions differently.
Under the territorial, or ‘scopes’ framework, you report all carbon emissions occurring within the city boundary (scope 1 emissions sources). Emission sources outside the city boundary are classified as scope 2 and scope 3.
However, if you only report on scope 1 emissions, you leave out the details of other emission sources that a city/LGA is responsible for. Therefore, the GPC also requires reporting under the ‘city-induced’ framework. Under this framework, carbon emissions due to activities taking place within a city are calculated, which takes selected scope 1, 2 and 3 emission sources into account.
Figure 1: The territorial and city-induced ways of reporting a GPC inventory
All emissions a city is responsible for are counted, no matter whether they occur within or outside the city. There are two options to report under the ‘city-induced’ framework, BASIC and BASIC+. The BASIC level allows you to report on standard emission sources in a city.
The BASIC+ level covers more emission sources. This means that a community has to report the most common scope 1, 2 and 3 emission sources. Cities should try and report as many emission sources as possible – this is usually constrained by what data sources are available.
One of the advantages of using the GPC in compiling your city’s or LGA’s carbon inventory is that it allows you to add all discrete inventories up to a national level. The way this works is that the boundaries of each inventory must not overlap and that you only count scope 1 emission sources.
If you only total scope 1 (‘territorial’) emissions, then you are reporting emissions occurring within the geographic boundary of a city, or LGA. This way of reporting community emissions is consistent with national-level greenhouse gas reporting.
When you are reporting under the territorial reporting level, you need to include the following scope 1 emission sources:
- Energy (both stationary and in-boundary transport)
- Waste and wastewater
- IPPU (only under BASIC+)
- AFOLU (only under BASIC+)
Emissions from grid-supplied energy are calculated at the point of energy generation. This means that you are reporting energy generation supplied to the grid within your city boundaries under scope 1, but you would not include this source in your BASIC/BASIC+ totals.
Emissions from waste are calculated at the point of waste disposed. This means that waste imported from outside the city but treated inside the city will be part of the scope 1 total under the territorial approach.
The BASIC level of reporting covers scope 1 and scope 2 emission sources from energy (both for stationary as well as transport purposes), as well as scope 1 and scope 3 emissions from waste.
If you are reporting under the BASIC reporting level, you need to include the following emission sources:
- Energy (both stationary and transport), scopes 1 and 2
- Waste and wastewater, scopes 1 and 3
You will need to report all carbon emissions from stationary energy sources such as natural gas consumption, in scope 1, and those from the use of grid-supplied electricity in scope 2.
You will also need to report fugitive emissions associated with coal, oil and natural gas systems under scope 1.
You need to report all carbon emissions from transportation fuels occurring within the city boundary in scope 1, and carbon emissions from grid-supplied electricity used for transportation within the city boundary in scope 2 (e.g., electric vehicle charging).
Emissions from grid-supplied energy are calculated at the point of energy consumption and emissions from waste at the point of waste generation. This means that under the city-induced framework, carbon emissions from the disposal or treatment of waste generated within the city boundary is accounted for, no matter whether the waste is treated inside (scope 1) or outside (scope 3) the city boundary.
The BASIC+ level requires communities to cover a broader range of emission sources in addition to the ones under the BASIC level. These emissions cover sources such as industrial processes (e.g., steel production), product use (e.g., paraffin use), agriculture, forestry and land use, and transboundary transportation.
BASIC+ also requires you to report scope 3 emissions associated with energy consumption (both stationary and transport). In the case of electricity consumption, these are emissions associated with transmission and distribution losses. For natural gas, petrol or diesel consumption, these are emissions attributable to upstream emissions in the production and transportation of the fuel.
Because scope 3 emission factors for energy consumption are readily available in most cases, cities that only report under BASIC also tend to report on these emission sources as part of an extended BASIC inventory.
Not all communities will have big industries or many agricultural emissions in their city/LGA. However, for the ones that do, they should be striving to report under BASIC+.
If you are reporting under the BASIC+ reporting level, you need to include the following scope 1, 2 and 3 emission sources:
- All BASIC emission sources
- Scope 3 emissions from electricity consumption (T&D losses)
- Scope 3 emissions from transboundary transportation
Summary of differences between BASIC and BASIC+ level reporting
The following table summarises the main differences between the two reporting levels.
Figure 2: Summary of differences between BASIC and BASIC+ level reporting
What is the minimum information you will need to report?
As a minimum, you need to report the following information:
- Geographic area of the inventory boundary
- Time span of the inventory (typically one year)
- City information (population, GDP)
- Emission sources across stationary (scope 1 and 2), in-boundary travel (scope 1 and 2), waste (scope 1 and 3)
- Total emissions in tonnes of CO2-e, but also per constituent gas (CO2, CH4, N20)
- Activity data, emission factors, data sources, assumptions and methodologies
- Data quality assessment
It is challenging to develop carbon footprints that are in alignment with the GPC. Sometimes, it is easier to get the help of an expert who can guide you through the process. Here at 100% Renewables, we are certified City Climate Planners, proving our experience in community-level GHG emissions inventory accounting.
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